Figure 2 Epicenter and JMA Seismic Intensity. Finally, we have no data that can differentiate CPA of cardiac causes from CPA of pulmonary causes. The occurrence of CPA was significantly increased after the Earthquake even after excluding the non-cardiopulmonary cases (Figure 2D and E). The earthquake generated a wide spread large scale tsunami. To access the impact of the Earthquake and the aftershocks on the occurrence of the diseases, we counted the number of earthquakes with a seismic intensity of 1 or greater on the Japanese scale, which were observed in the Miyagi Prefecture during the study period (Japan Meteorological Agency: Source: GSIFigure 5 Holizontal Displacement, Source: GSIFigure 6 Vertical Displacement (Subsidence).

From there, take the Sendai Municipal Bus to the former Sendai Arahama Elementary School, 700 meters from the coast, which was heavily damaged in the earthquake and tsunami. We were able to obtain all the medical records from the 12 fire departments in the Miyagi Prefecture. Res. In each year, we calculated ‘the rate of definitive diagnosis at admission in the emergency rooms (%)’, which means the percentage of cases with definitive diagnosis made by doctors among all transported cases.

Importantly, the weekly occurrences of the five diseases examined, including HF, ACS, stroke, CPA, and pneumonia, were all significantly increased soon after the Earthquake (Figure 2A–F; see Supplementary material online, Table S1). Source: JMAFigure 4 Locations of Main Shock and Aftershock. The Tsunami killed tens of thousands people, and destroyed the towns, infrastructures, lifelines and other livelihoods. We consider that the increased occurrences of CVDs in the Great East Japan Earthquake may have been caused by the following multiple factors: (i) the activated sympathetic nervous system by physical and mental stresses, (ii) insufficient medications, (iii) increased salt intake from preserved foods, and (iv) elevated blood pressure and viscosity; however, further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms of disaster-related CVDs. These results suggest that the physical and/or mental stress induced by the Earthquake first facilitated CPA events, while other CVDs were due to the catastrophe occurring later on (tsunami, break down of lifelines, low temperatures, etc.).

Basic Information Regarding Health Effects of Radiation, Reconstruction Agency (JCN:4000012010017) Loss of membrane integrity drives myofiber death in lipin1-deficient skeletal muscle.

While previous studies reported a short-term increase in individual cardiovascular disease (CVD) after great earthquakes, mid-term occurrences of all types of CVDs after great earthquakes are unknown. This work was supported by a grant from the Miyagi Medical Association and a contribution by the Japanese Circulation Society. The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal, © 1996-2020 MDPI (Basel, Switzerland) unless otherwise stated. As those stations operated by JMA were also affected very high tsunami and the tsunami height exceeded the recording range or the stations were damaged by the wave, JMA could not observe actual tsunami height. First, in the present study, we analysed the occurrences of the diseases based on the initial diagnoses on the ambulance transport records that were made by attending doctors. The event which has the largest magnitude ever recorded in Japan and 4th largest in the world (Figure 1), recorded a maximum seismic intensity 7 (JMA Seismic Intensity) at Kurihara City, Miyagi Prefecture as shown in Figure 2. The massive quake of magnitude 9.0, and the ensuing tsunami with an estimated height of over 7 meters, caused unprecedented damage in Sendai. Updates on Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Powerplant, Name: The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, Date and Time: 11 March 2011, 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC), Hypocenter: 38° 6.2′N, 142° 51.6′E (130km ESE off Oshika Peninsula), Depth 24km, Magnitude: 9.0 (the largest earthquake recorded in Japan), JMA Seismic Intensity: 7 (max: Kurihara City, Miyagi Prefecture).

We enrolled all ambulance transport records in the Miyagi Prefecture from 11 February to 30 June in each year of 2008–11 (n = 124 152), from 4 weeks before to 16 weeks after 11 March, in order to reveal the effects of the Earthquake on the occurrence of CVDs. The earthquake is often referred to in Japan as the G… Source: 1 World Largest Earthquakes, Source: The earthquake was so powerful it moved Honshu, Japan’s largest island, 2.4 metres east and shifted the Earth on its axis by an estimated 10 to 25 centimetres. MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Crustal movements especially horizontal movement to the east-southeast and land subsidence have been observed after the earthquake in wide areas from the Tohoku to Kanto Region. The Earthquake forced many people in the Miyagi Prefecture to take shelter and/or to live without distribution of daily necessities, lifelines (e.g. Acute coronary syndrome was defined as acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina, stroke as intracranial haemorrhage, cerebral infarction or subarachnoid haemorrhage, and CPA as cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance regardless of the causes. To tour the area, first, take the Sendai Municipal Subway Tozai Line from Sendai Station. The study pointed out the severe impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on populations who had belonged to the primary industry, especially among elderly women, and its effect on sleep conditions. The number of aftershocks in the Miyagi Prefecture was frequent during the 6 weeks after the Earthquake, and the second peak was noted at the large aftershock on 7 April 2011 (magnitude of 7.0) (Figure 2G). Visit and engage with the legacy of the earthquake and the path to restoration. See further details. These reports were collected and stored in the fire departments that operate the emergency medical system.

The weekly occurrences of CVDs, including heart failure (HF), acute coronary syndrome (ACS), stroke, cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA), and pneumonia were all significantly increased after the Earthquake compared with the previous 3 years. We addressed this important issue in our experience with the Great East Japan Earthquake (11 March 2011). Seventhly, we have no data regarding prior medications in each patient, which might have affected the occurrence of CVDs. All P-values were two-sided, and P-values of <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. 2020.

Although the age of all transported patients in 2011 was significantly higher than that in the previous 3 years, the age of the patients with CVDs and pneumonia was comparable with the previous 3 years, suggesting less impact of age and sex on the increased occurrences of CVDs and pneumonia (Figure 3). Prognostic impact of myocardial interstitial fibrosis in non-ischemic heart failure. The subgroup analyses of the 2011 data showed that age, sex, or residence area did not significantly influence the occurrences of CVDs after the Earthquake (Figure 4). Fifthly, the Miyagi Prefecture is located next to the Fukushima Prefecture where the nuclear power plant accident occurred; however, the influence of the nuclear accident was minimal in our Miyagi Prefecture. The number of unemployed people increased from 150,000 to 190,000 after the earthquake.

Among these 57 hospitals, 56 (98%) have an echocardiography machine, 57 (100%) have full-time physicians, and 38 (67%) have full-time cardiologists. Source: NOAAFigure 7 Tsunami Travel Times. The Great East Japan Earthquake, better known internationally as the Tohoku earthquake, struck at 2:46 pm on March 11, 2011. We also observed that the rapid increase in the occurrence of ACS was followed by a significant decline (Figure 2B). Taken together, we consider that discontinuation of drugs, increased salt intake, activated sympathetic nervous system, blood pressure elevation, and increased occurrences of tachyarrhythmia and infections were likely involved in the increased occurrence of HF after the Great East Japan Earthquake. On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake hit the northeast part of Japan with a magnitude of 9.0 on the Richter scale, which was one of the largest ocean-trench earthquakes ever recorded in Japan (Table 1). We defined the municipalities facing the Pacific Ocean as the seacoast area where the Tsunami directly attacked and the remaining inner area as the inland area (Figure 1B). The East Coast got a little taste of West Coast-style geology on Tuesday afternoon with a 5.8 magnitude earthquake that shook buildings—or at … In this region, a large-scale inter-plate earthquake with magnitude of 7.0 to 8.5 had been predicted to occur with 99% probability within 30 years. Does previous hypertension affect outcome in acute heart failure?

Furthermore, the occurrence of CPA was increased in the first 24 h after the Earthquake, followed by other diseases later on.