I argue that race must be understood as a sui generis social phenomenon in which contested systems of meaning serve as the connections between physical features, races, and personal characteristics. Despite a seeming rejection of biological race, Justice White [stated]: “The Court of Appeals was thus quite right in holding that § 1981, ‘at a minimum,’ reaches discrimination against an individual ‘because he or she is genetically part of an ethnically and physiognomically distinctive subgrouping of homo sapiens.”‘. Evidence shows that those features usually coded to race, for example, stature, skin color, hair texture, and facial structure, do not correlate strongly with genetic variation. Nevertheless, the history of science has long been the history of failed efforts to justify these social beliefs.
The United Nations, in a 1950 statement, opted to “drop the term ‘race’ altogether and speak of “ethnic groups”. The term has been used by forensic and physical anthropologists to refer to individuals and populations that share certain morphological and skeletal traits that are frequent among most populations in Sub-Saharan Africa. These races can be further subdivided into as many as 30 subgroups. In Saint Francis College v. Al-Khazraji, the Court determined that an Arab could recover damages for racial discrimination under 42 U.S.C. . Mongoloid (/ ˈ m ɒ ŋ. ɡ ə. l ɔɪ d /) is an outdated historical grouping of various people indigenous to East Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, North Asia, Polynesia, and the Americas.. By . Face: Leproscopic (to a much lesser degree than the Caucasion), Prognathism common in most Negro populations. Under this view, one’s ancestors and epidermis ineluctably determine membership in a genetically defined racial group. . This points to current English and Italian usage being derived and adapted, respectively, from the French. TABLE E-2 RACE DETERMINATION * These and many others sited above will vary. . The idea that there exist three races, and that these races are “Caucasoid,” “Negroid,” and “Mongoloid,” is rooted in the European imagination of the Middle Ages, which encompassed only Europe, Africa, and the Near East.. . Biological races like Negroid and Caucasoid simply do not exist. . Anthropometry was used extensively by anthropologists studying human and rac… Phylogeography is the science of identifying and tracking major human migrations, especially in prehistoric times. Face: Wide and short, projecting cheek bones, Prognathism rare. Wiki: Caucasoid is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon, including some or all of the populations of Europe, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia, Central Asia and South Asia. In this case, there are more than 5,000 ethnic groups in the world, according to a 1998 study published in the Scientific American. . Although its validity and utility are disputed by many anthropologists, Caucasoid as a biological classification remains in limited use in forensic anthropology. European skulls, sometimes referred to by the scientific terms Caucasoid or Caucasian, are relatively long and narrow when compared to Asian or African types. Filed Under: Life, Modern World, Science Tagged With: All Races, anthropological races, anthropology, asian, Asian People, australoid, Australoid Race, basic races of man, Biological Race, biology, black, caucasian, Caucasian Race, ethnographic races, Historical Race Concepts, homo sapiens, Human Race, human races, Mongolian Race, mongoloid, negroid, Negroid Race, Racism, Social Interpretations Of Race, sociology, white. By 1871, some leading intellectuals had recognized that even using the word “race” “was virtually a confession of ignorance or evil intent.” The genetic studies of the last few decades have only added more nails to the coffin of biological race. The skull features of Caucasoid, Mongoloid, and Negroid races are shown in Table E-2. That is, greater genetic variation exists within the populations typically labeled Black and White than between these populations. By adopting the lower court’s language of genetics and distinctive subgroupings, Justice White demonstrates the Court’s continued reliance on blood as a metonym for race. Negroid: Skull: usually Dolicephalic, a small minority are Brachycephalic. For those in a hurry, they enable a quick summary of many important subjects. Links outside of the World-Mysteries.com web site (external links) are provided for user convenience and do not necessarily constitute or imply endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the World-Mysteries.com. . . The rejection of race in science is now almost complete. They assert that they can identify a Caucasoid skull with an accuracy of up to 95%. Most anthropologists recognize 3 or 4 basic races of man in existence today. Referents of terms like Black, White, Asian, and Latino are social groups, not genetically distinct branches of humankind. Nasal openings are triangular shaped with … . Unfortunately, few in this society seem prepared to fully relinquish their subscription to notions of biological race.. .
There are no genetic characteristics possessed by all Blacks but not by non- Blacks; similarly, there is no gene or cluster of genes common to all Whites but not to non-Whites.
A newly popular argument among several scholars, is that races are wholly illusory, whether as a biological or social concept. . As one scholar notes, “[t]he nineteenth century was a period of exhaustive and–as it turned out–futile search for criteria to define and describe race differences.”. The data compiled by various scientists demonstrates, contrary to popular opinion, that intra-group differences exceed inter-group differences. . It is found in more than 50% of Chinese males, and ranging up to over 80% in certain regional subgroups of the Han ethnicity. Mongoloid: Skull: High incidence of Brachycephaly(Short Round Head) American Indians while Mongoloid are often Dolicephalic. EUROPE - Wiki: Geneticists have found that Europe is relatively genetically homogeneous. .In Metrobroadcasting v. FCC, Justice Scalia again reveals the Court’s understanding of race as a matter of blood. During oral argument, Scalia attacked the argument that granting minorities broadcasting licenses would enhance diversity by blasting “the policy as a matter of ‘blood,’ at one point charging that the policy reduced to a question of ‘blood . Attempts to define racial categories by physical attributes ultimately failed. According to George W. Gill and other modern forensic anthropologists, physical traits of Caucasoid crania can be distinguished from those of the people from Mongoloid and Negroid racial groups based on the shapes of specific diagnostic anatomical features.
When some people use the “race” they attach a biological meaning, still others use “race” as a socially constructed concept.