These escaped slaves were often referred to as maroons, and they built many walled villages called palenques in the less inhabited interiors of the colonies of South America and the Caribbean islands. Venezuela also later became its own colonial administrative unit near the end of the colonial period. Many slaves from Cartagena, as well as elsewhere in Colombia and South America, escaped and formed free communities. The city was founded on the 1st June 1533, by Spanish Commander Pedro de Heredia, who took over an abandoned Amerindian Caribbean village known as Calamarí and started building a settlement of his own. While the term is often used today to people to who like Champeta music, it can still sometimes carry a negative connotation to refer to uncultured or vulgar people. Gorgona Island Francis Drake’s occupation of Cartagena lasted for over two months. In fact the flagship of the fleet San Jose was sunk and went down loaded with treasure. Cali All the while, royalist forces captured the cities of Barranquilla and Mompox. Finally, a new aqueduct was constructed that helped bring fresh water to the city and reduced the spread of disease. In addition to being a status symbol, within the city most slaves worked as domestic workers in homes or in religious institutions such as churches and convents, dock workers, artisans such as carpenters and ship builders, couriers, or in construction. Later the onset of the Reformation and emergence of Protestantism led the Spanish to extend the Inquisition to its colonies. However, the difficulty of managing such a large area from Lima led to the Spanish to later create the Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada that included most of modern day Ecuador, Panama, Colombia, and Venezuela, with its administrative capital at Bogotá. In fact the period between the first moves for independence in 1810 and the Spanish reconquest in 1815-16 is often called the Patria Boba, or “Foolish Fatherland,” as a result of this failure to unify. It was the first of a number of cities that have been named Cartagena, most notably Cartagena, Colombia. If you have a passion for ancient history, Cartagena, Spain is a perfect destination. Where to Stay in Cartagena Insider’s Guide. While it is celebrated today as Colombia’s Independence Day, the declaration itself did not declare full independence. Once again there would be a siege of Cartagena. It was subsequently ruled by the Umayyads (714–756), the Caliphate of Cordova (756–1031), the Taifa of Denia (1031–1076), the Taifa of Saragossa (1076–1081), the Taifa of Tortosa (1081–1092), the Almoravids (1092–1145), the Almohads (1145–1229) and the Taifa of Murcia (1229–1245). Cartagena has been the capital of the Spanish Navy's Maritime Department of the Mediterranean since the arrival of the Spanish Bourbons in the 18th century.

The Spanish gave monopolies to trade with Europe to designated ports in their colonies, of which Cartagena Nueva Granada’s.