The climate is of the continental type, with warm summers and cold winters. Tricksters also featured in their legends and Mythology. Most drums were made from caribou skin, or walrus stomach or bladder stretched over a wooden hoop. Cultivated corn (maize), beans, squash, and weedy seed-bearing plants such as Chenopodium formed the economic base for farming groups. The Bering Sea Eskimo and St. Lawrence Island Eskimo live around the Bering Sea, where resources include migrating sea mammals and, in the mainland rivers, seasonal runs of salmon and other fish. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Southeast was also known for its religious iconography, which often included bird themes, and for the use of the “black drink,” an emetic used in ritual contexts. The Pueblo peoples built architecturally remarkable apartment houses of adobe and stone masonry (see pueblo architecture) and were known for their complex kinship structures, kachina (katsina) dances and dolls, and fine pottery, textiles, and kiva and sand paintings. Arctic Indians - Lifestyle (Way of Living)The climate, land and natural resources that were available to the Indian tribes resulted in the adoption of the Arctic Indians culture. The uses of the animals were varied and included food, clothing, shelter and decorations. The word "Eskimo" is an Algonquian word meaning 'those who eat their meat raw.' Pieces of wood or whalebone were used as a frame for the roof, which the Inuit then covered with sod (pieces of turf). Prominent tribes include the Algonquin, Iroquois, Huron, Wampanoag, Mohican, Mohegan, Ojibwa, Ho-chunk (Winnebago), Sauk, Fox, and Illinois. In the Gulf of Alaska, ethnic distinctions were blurred by Russian colonizers who used the term Aleut to refer not only to people of the Aleutian Islands but also to the culturally distinct groups residing on Kodiak Island and the neighbouring areas of the mainland. The Russians transplanted some Aleuts to formerly unoccupied islands of the Commander group, west of the Aleutians, and to those of the Pribilofs, in the Bering Sea. Traditionally, most tribes in the Southeast spoke Muskogean languages; there were also some Siouan language speakers and one Iroquoian-speaking group, the Cherokee.
Traditional trade and bartering could span hundreds of miles. The animals of this region included the whale, seal, caribou, otter, polar bears, walrus and Arctic birds. The traditional languages of the Northeast are largely of the Iroquoian and Algonquian language families. Aleut now includes only a single language of two dialects, but, before the disruption that followed the 18th-century arrival of Russian fur hunters, it included several dialects, if not separate languages, spoken from about longitude 158° W on the Alaska Peninsula, throughout the Aleutian Islands, and westward to Attu, the westernmost island of the Aleutian chain. In Alaska, Central Alaskan Yupik includes dialects that covered the Bering Sea coast from Norton Sound to the Alaska Peninsula, where it met Pacific Yupik (known also as Sugpiaq or Alutiiq). The people of the Western Arctic area focused on the Moon God called Igaluck. The uses of the animals were varied and included food, clothing, shelter and decorations. Historically, each individual’s identity was defined on the basis of connections such as kinship and marriage in addition to place and language. This culture area reaches from the present-day Canadian provinces of Quebec, Ontario, and the Maritimes (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island) south to the Ohio River valley (inland) and to North Carolina (on the Atlantic Coast). The Southwest is home to speakers of Hokan, Uto-Aztecan, Tanoan, Keresan, Kiowa-Tanoan, Penutian, and Athabaskan languages. The Apaches, Yumans, Pima, and Tohono O’odham generally built thatched houses or brush shelters and focused their expressive culture on oral traditions. Drum dances usually occurred inside large snowhouses (igloos) with up to 60 people. Igloos are dome-shaped snow houses constructed of blocks cut from snow. Some customs were to speak Alaskan, Siberian yupiky , and Inuktitut. Practical clothing was made from the skins of the caribou and the seal. The animals and the Plants, Trees and Crops provided their food, clothing, shelter and decorations. We hope that this Article on Arctic Indians will assist in your studies or homework and that you will enjoy watching the videos featuring many pictures of the Arctic Indians. The climate is temperate, precipitation is moderate, and the predominant ecosystem is the deciduous forest. Among the largest of the customary -miut designators are those coinciding at least roughly with the limits of a dialect or subdialect, the speakers of which tended to seek spouses from within that group; such groups might range in size from 200 to as many as 1,000 people. Several villages or hamlets formed a tribe, and groups of tribes sometimes organized into powerful confederacies. Small mobile bands were the predominant form of social organization; band membership was generally based on kinship and marriage (see also Sidebar: The Difference Between a Tribe and a Band). Because of their close social, genetic, and linguistic relations to Yupik speakers in Alaska, the Yupik-speaking peoples living near the Bering Sea in Siberia are sometimes discussed with these groups.
Stone channels and check dams (low walls that slowed the runoff from the sporadic but heavy rains) were common throughout the Southwest, as were basketry and digging sticks. All of the groups noted thus far reside near open water that freezes solid in winter, speak dialects of the Inuit language, and are commonly referred to in aggregate as Inuit (meaning “the people”). The extreme arctic climate, land and natural resources that were available to the Indian tribes were difficult to live in requiring ingenuity and adaptability to survive in these lands. The anorak or parka was originally made from caribou or seal and was invented by the Caribou Inuit, Inuit (Eskimo) of the Arctic region. The Inuit ate approximately half their meat raw. Pacific Yupik comprises three dialects: that of the Kodiak Island group, that of the south shore of the Kenai Peninsula, and that of Prince William Sound. The Culture of the Arctic IndiansLocation: The Arctic cultural area extends from the northern edge of Alaska to Greenland as shown on the map. For instance, in reference to groups residing on the North Atlantic and Arctic coasts, these texts might discuss the East Greenland Eskimo, West Greenland Eskimo, and Polar Eskimo, although only the last territorial division corresponded to a single self-contained, in-marrying (endogamous) group. Small kin-based bands were the predominant form of social organization, although seasonal gatherings of larger groups occurred at favoured fishing locales. In winter people generally resided in snug semisubterranean houses built to withstand extreme weather; summer allowed for more mobility and the use of tents or lean-tos. The indigenous peoples of the North American Arctic include the Eskimo (Inuit and Yupik/Yupiit) and Aleut; their traditional languages are in the Eskimo-Aleut family. Figures were carved from ivory (the tusks of the walrus) and whale bone.
Other common aspects of culture included dugouts made of the trunks of whole trees, birchbark canoes, clothing made of pelts and deerskins, and a variety of medicine societies. Wild plant foods, deer, other game, and fish (for those groups living near rivers) were the primary foraged foods. The Navajo and the many Apache groups usually engaged in some combination of agriculture, foraging, and the raiding of other groups. Towns often included large earthen mounds on which religious structures and the homes of the ruling classes or families were placed. Identification of group membership was traditionally made by place of residence, with the suffix -miut (“people of”) applied in a nesting set of labels to persons of any specifiable place—from the home of a family or two to a broad region with many residents. Arctic Indians - LanguagesThe languages of the Arctic Indians included an Eskimo-Aleut language. Arctic Indians - AnimalsThe animals were very important to the Arctic Indians. Prominent tribes include the Innu (Montagnais and Naskapi), Cree, Ojibwa, Chipewyan, Beaver, Slave, Carrier, Gwich’in, Tanaina, and Deg Xinag (Ingalik). The animals were very important to the Arctic Indians. Learn about the life of the people of the Arctic Indians. Various types of tools, wooden containers and dishes. People grew corn, beans, squash, tobacco, and other crops; they also gathered wild plant foods and shellfish, hunted deer and other animals, and fished. The topography is relatively flat, and the climate is characterized by very cold temperatures for most of the year. Groups that had access to reliably plentiful wild foods such as wild rice, salmon, or shellfish generally preferred to live in dispersed hamlets of extended families. Three of these are Siberian: Sirenikski is now virtually extinct, Naukanski is restricted to the easternmost Chukchi Peninsula, and Chaplinski is spoken on Alaska’s St. Lawrence Island, on the southern end of the Chukchi Peninsula, and near the mouth of the Anadyr River in the south and on Wrangel Island in the north. The Eskimo division is further subdivided into Inuit and Yupik. Arctic Indians - Geography, Location and EnvironmentThe Geography and Environment can be generally described as cold, flat and treeless (tundra).
Each of these three groups speaks a distinct form of Yupik; together they are commonly referred to as Yupik Eskimo or as Yupiit (“the people”). The groups who built these communities divided their time between village-based crop production and hunting expeditions, which often lasted for several weeks and involved travel over a considerable area. The Arctic shaman was assisted by many spirits that were represented by masks, displaying human and animal elements, during ceremonies and ritual dances.
Arctic Indians - Lifestyle (Way of Living)The 'First Nation' indigenous population of Alaska refer to themselves as Alutiiq (Aleuts), Yup'ik and Inupiaq, whilst the indigenous people of Canada and Greenland prefer the term Inuit. Hamlets were usually associated with a town that served as the area’s ceremonial and market centre.