Named for Nisga’a chief Frank Calder, the Calder Case forces the government to adopt new policies to negotiate land claims with Indigenous peoples not covered by treaties. Haudenosaunee Confederacy Try Resolving Disputes in Lower Great Lakes Region.

(See also Women and the Indian Act.). Five of his books were written in the Anishinaabemowin language. The Inuit Tapirisat of Canada, renamed Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami in 2001, is formed as a national organization advocating for self- government, social, economic, environmental, health, and political welfare of Inuit in Canada, and preservation of language and history. at Gustafsen Lake, British Columbia, ended. Dissolution of INAC and introduction of two new ministries.

The Indian Act is amended to allow for the forced enfranchisement of First Nations whom the government thought should be removed from band lists.

Alban Michael, the last fluent speaker of the Nuchatlaht language, died in Campbell River, British Columbia, at age 89. is formed out of the National Indian

Hunkpapa Lakota Sioux warrior and chief Tatanka Iyotake, also known as Sitting Bull, died at Standing Rock, South Dakota.

Final Report of the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls Released. Implementing a recommendation by the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (1996), the federal government dissolved Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) and replaced it with two new ministries: Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs; and Indigenous Services. The Mica Bay Incident occurred in November 1849 when First Nations and Métis people, led by white businessman Allan Macdonell, attacked the company's mining installations in a dispute over mining rights in the area. Bill C-369 would make September 30 a statutory holiday called “National Day for Truth and Reconciliation.” (See also Truth and Reconciliation Commission.) Inuk artist Kenojuak Ashevak, who is perhaps the best-known Inuk artist because of her famous print The Enchanted Owl, was born at Ikirasaq camp, South Baffin Island, NWT. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission releases the summary of its final report on the residential school system and the experiences of survivors, characterizing Canada’s treatment of Indigenous peoples as “cultural genocide.” The report includes 94 calls to action aimed at redressing the legacy of residential schools and assisting in the process of reconciliation. , where they suffered years of extreme hardship.In August 2016, on the 60th anniversary of the forced relocation, minister Carolyn Bennett issued a formal apology to survivors on behalf of the, announced that it had cancelled plans to build the Energy East, , which would have carried crude oil from, to other countries. The Nunavik Inuit Land Claims Agreement Comes Into Effect.

Promises to protect the Métis were still unfulfilled more than a decade later, sparking the Northwest Resistance in 1885. For centuries to come, blankets are widely traded, including the iconic HBC Point Blanket, first made in 1779 and still available today. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada hosts its first national event, in Winnipeg, MB. Indian Act Amendment Gives Elected Band Councils More Powers. Survivor Toby Obed, who was instrumental in the class-action lawsuit against the federal government, accepted Trudeau’s apology on behalf of his community. It explores the history of the residential school system, the experience of former students and their families and the impact such institutions had on Indigenous peoples in Canada. The declaration recognizes a wide range of, .

Federal and provincial officials signed an agreement of land claims with the Nishga'a in northwestern British Columbia. rules unanimously that the

The bill created new categories of Indian registration – 6(1) and 6(2) – and stipulated that status cannot be transferred if one parent is registered under section 6(2).

The treaty helped to establish Indigenous rights for the future. Big Bear (Mistahimaskwa) surrendered at Fort Carlton.

legal definition of “, to Métis and non-status Indians, it helped The 11 Numbered Treaties are signed by the Canadian government and Indigenous nations. Pontiac was murdered at the site of present-day St Louis, Missouri.

It is was the first urban treaty ever negotiated in British Columbia.

Trudeau Announces Renaming of Langevin Block.

The Spicer Commission recommended that the government foster a sense of country, that Québec be recognized as a unique province, that there be a prompt settlement of Indigenous land claims and that the Senate be reformed or abolished.

Brotherhood to promote the interests of First Nations in the realm of self-government, respect for treaty rights, education, health, land, and resources. An American Fur Company boat arrived at Fort Union, setting off a smallpox epidemic across the praries, killing an estimated three-quarters of the Blackfoot, Blood, Peigan, Sarcee and Assiniboine peoples of the prairies. Five of his books were written in the Anishinaabemowin language. Ottawa police were still investigating suspicious elements of the case several months after Pootoogook’s death. Indigenous Affairs minister Carolyn Bennett announced Canada’s full support of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. September 30 currently recognizes residential school survivors as “Orange Shirt Day.” The goal of the stat holiday would be to ensure that “public commemoration of the history and legacy of residential schools and other atrocities committed against First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples remains a vital component of the reconciliation process.” The bill requires approval from the House of Commons and Senate to become law. Often, these homes were non-Indigenous. Indigenous technology and knowledge of hunting, trapping, guiding, food, and disease prove crucial to the survival of Europeans and early colonial economy and society, particularly in the supply of beaver pelts and other furs.

It would then need approval from the provinces and territories to be officially observed.

Prime Minister Stephen Harper, on behalf of the Government of Canada, delivers a formal apology in the House of Commons to former students, their families, and communities for Canada's role in the operation of residential schools.

The Supreme Court of Canada agrees that Indigenous peoples held title to land before European colonization, that this title existed in law, and that it continues unless specifically extinguished. TransCanada announced that it had cancelled plans to build the Energy East pipeline, which would have carried crude oil from Alberta and Saskatchewan to refineries in Québec and New Brunswick. Inuit Education Research Conducted by Federal Government.

Aboriginal History Timeline Aboriginal Languages Land & Sea Councils The Aboriginal Australian culture is a diverse culture and one of the oldest and most fascinating cultures on earth.